No teacher can proceed without the conviction that he/she can produce a change in the students he/she teaches. Causality therefore has always formed an integral part of pedagogical thinking. However, initial attempts, to incorporate causality into pedagogical theory failed. As a result, causality was then rejected. More recently, however, research in psychology, sociology, and organizational theory sought to re-introduce causality in ways that enable its incorporation into pedagogical theory. But even these efforts were not without problems. Second-order observation takes a step back from this endeavor to see what distinctions are made in attributing causes, and which ones are not.
Keywords: Causality, Causal Plan, Attribution, Medium, Observation
Causality, Technology and Instruction